Read Yo soy un extraño bucle by Douglas R. Hofstadter Free Online


Ebook Yo soy un extraño bucle by Douglas R. Hofstadter read! Book Title: Yo soy un extraño bucle
The author of the book: Douglas R. Hofstadter
ISBN: 8483830876
ISBN 13: 9788483830871
Language: English
Edition: Tusquets
Date of issue: November 1st 2008
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 573 KB
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La obra definitiva del autor de Gödel, Escher, Bach

¿Por qué un fragmento de materia es capaz de pensar en sí mismo?

Con la ambiciosa intención de explorar el complejo concepto del yo desde el punto de vista científico, Douglas R. Hofstadter retoma y amplía una de las ideas fundamentales que presentó en su aclamada obra Gödel, Escher, Bach: el paralelismo entre el hallazgo de Gödel de una autorreferencia surgida de un sustrato de símbolos sin significado y la milagrosa aparición de egos y almas a partir de sustratos de materia inanimada, donde residiría el secreto de nuestro sentido del «yo». La tarea de reseguir los múltiples meandros de ese «extraño bucle» sólo podía abordarla un genio de intereses multidisciplinares como Hofstadter.

No es poca cosa investigar si una identidad –alma, conciencia o «yo»– puede emerger de la simple materia. De la sopa de partículas que, a un nivel más profundo, es el cerebro humano, ascendemos a una selva de neuronas y, aún más allá, a una red de abstracciones que denominamos «símbolos», el más complejo y trascendental de los cuales es el «yo», ese extraño bucle en el cerebro en el que se realimentan los niveles simbólicos y físicos. Curiosamente los símbolos parecen poseer libre albedrío y tener la paradójica propiedad de impulsar a las partículas y no al revés. ¿Cómo puede ser real una misteriosa abstracción como ésa? ¿Cómo reflejamos a otros seres en nuestra mente? ¿Pueden coexistir en nuestro cerebro diversos bucles extraños de distinta «intensidad»?

A preguntas y misterios como éstos se enfrenta Douglas Hofstadter en este apasionante ensayo trufado de las anécdotas, metáforas y analogías que le han hecho famoso... y comprensible para el profano. Un estilo de escribir ensayos –ameno, provocativo, comprometido– que, como los clásicos de la filosofía, da que pensar.

Douglas R. Hofstadter nació en Nueva York en 1945 y es hijo de Robert Hofstadter, premio Nobel de Física en 1961. Estudió matemáticas en Stanford y física en la Universidad de Oregón. Fue profesor de ciencias cognitivas en la Universidad de Michigan hasta 1988 y, en la actualidad, en la Universidad de Indiana, donde también dirige el Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition. Su obra Gödel, Escher, Bach (1979) se convirtió al poco de su aparición en un espectacular éxito en Estados Unidos, antes incluso de recibir el prestigioso Premio Pulitzer en 1980 y el American Book Award del mismo año; los lectores y críticos del mundo entero acogieron el libro con idéntico entusiasmo. Hofstadter ha publicado también The Mind's I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul (1981), en colaboración con el filósofo Daniel C. Dennett, y Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern (1985), entre otras obras, así como una traducción al inglés del Eugene Oneguin de Pushkin.




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Ebook Yo soy un extraño bucle read Online! Douglas Richard Hofstadter is an American academic whose research focuses on consciousness, thinking and creativity. He is best known for his book Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid, first published in 1979, for which he was awarded the 1980 Pulitzer Prize for general non-fiction.

Hofstadter is the son of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Robert Hofstadter. Douglas grew up on the campus of Stanford University, where his father was a professor. Douglas attended the International School of Geneva for a year. He graduated with Distinction in Mathematics from Stanford in 1965. He spent a few years in Sweden in the mid 1960s. He continued his education and received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Oregon in 1975.

Hofstadter is College of Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science at Indiana University in Bloomington, where he directs the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition which consists of himself and his graduate students, forming the "Fluid Analogies Research Group" (FARG). He was initially appointed to the Indiana University's Computer Science Department faculty in 1977, and at that time he launched his research program in computer modeling of mental processes (which at that time he called "artificial intelligence research", a label that he has since dropped in favor of "cognitive science research"). In 1984, he moved to the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where he was hired as a professor of psychology and was also appointed to the Walgreen Chair for the Study of Human Understanding. In 1988 he returned to Bloomington as "College of Arts and Sciences Professor" in both Cognitive Science and Computer Science, and also was appointed Adjunct Professor of History and Philosophy of Science, Philosophy, Comparative Literature, and Psychology, but he states that his involvement with most of these departments is nominal.

In April, 2009, Hofstadter was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Member of the American Philosophical Society.
Hofstadter's many interests include music, visual art, the mind, creativity, consciousness, self-reference, translation and mathematics. He has numerous recursive sequences and geometric constructions named after him.

At the University of Michigan and Indiana University, he co-authored, with Melanie Mitchell, a computational model of "high-level perception" — Copycat — and several other models of analogy-making and cognition. The Copycat project was subsequently extended under the name "Metacat" by Hofstadter's doctoral student James Marshall. The Letter Spirit project, implemented by Gary McGraw and John Rehling, aims to model the act of artistic creativity by designing stylistically uniform "gridfonts" (typefaces limited to a grid). Other more recent models are Phaeaco (implemented by Harry Foundalis) and SeqSee (Abhijit Mahabal), which model high-level perception and analogy-making in the microdomains of Bongard problems and number sequences, respectively.

Hofstadter collects and studies cognitive errors (largely, but not solely, speech errors), "bon mots" (spontaneous humorous quips), and analogies of all sorts, and his long-time observation of these diverse products of cognition, and his theories about the mechanisms that underlie them, have exerted a powerful influence on the architectures of the computational models developed by himself and FARG members.

All FARG computational models share certain key principles, among which are: that human thinking is carried out by thousands of independent small actions in parallel, biased by the concepts that are currently activated; that activation spreads from activated concepts to less activated "neighbor concepts"; that there is a "mental temperature" that regulates the degree of randomness in the parallel activity; that promising avenues tend to be explored more rapidly than unpromising ones. FARG models also have an overarching philosophy that


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